Landscape painting was an extremely important time during the middle of the nineteenth century. One of the leading practitioners of landscape painters in America was Thomas Cole. He went to many places seeking the natural world in which he used direct observation to show his audience the untainted nature by man. His works helped to find goodness in American land and to help Americans take pride in their unique geological features created by god. Thomas Cole inspired many with his brilliant works by bringing satisfaction among the people who were trying to find “the truth” (realism) through the works of others. Thomas Cole was born on February 1, 1801 in Bolton, Lancashire, England. Due to financial problems experienced by his[…]

Despite the many purposes it seems to serve, Stonehenge is still the embodiment of mystery for most of the world. Some believe that its purpose was to be used as an astronomical observatory. Others think that it was used as a religious meeting center for the Druids. However, no one has been able to prove its true meaning and existence. Stonehenge is believed to have been built in three main periods. The first took place between 3100 and 2700 B. C. This part of the construction consisted of building a huge ditch around the area in which Stonehenge was to be built (Castleden 1). This ditch was 320 ft. in diameter with a broken area in which the entrance is[…]

“I never wrote two books alike”, once said John Steinbeck (Shaw, 10). That may be true, but I think that he wrote many of his novels and short stories based on many of the same views. He often focused on social problems, like the “haves” verses the “have nots”, and made the reader want to encourage the underdog. Steinbeck’s back ground and concern for the common man made him one of the best writers for human rights. John Steinbeck was born in Salians, California and spent most of his life there or around Salians, because of that he often modeled his stories and the characters around the land he loved and the experiences he encountered. He lived in Salians until[…]

The extraordinary statue of King Chephren is a masterpiece of sculpture in the round. This work is 168cm tall, 96cm long and 57cm wide, which was the approximate size of the king. The artist who created this sculpture is unknown, as it was found when Mariette’s workmen were exploring the favissa of Chephren’s valley temple in 1860. The statue was built during the reign of King Chephren, which historians estimate lasted from 2540-2505 BC. The statue is a cut block of Diorite, a granular crystalline igneous rock. This work can be found in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (Ground Floor, room 42), or if you are unable to visit Cairo, images of the work can be found in the Official[…]

Art is something which can be analyzed to give deeper insight as to the common values and beliefs shared by the members of a certain society. Regardless of the place of origin or the time period of a form of art, it will always be a reflection of the social structure in which it’s creator/s lived. However, the way the artist perceives the culture common to his time period is very relative. People pertaining to a higher social class had different values and ideologies than members of a lower class. This different view of life can be seen very clearly in individual forms of art such as painting and music. These specific forms of artistic expression required very little money,[…]

The civil strife and chaos that had torn Russia limb from limb in the early 20th Century, although brutally devastating, did not hail the end of the stability and power that had characterized the massive country for so much of history. The continuing strength of what was now the Soviet Union lay in the newly formed support structure provided by Socialist Realism, a force that directed the awareness of, and the arts produced by, the Soviet people. The ideals of Socialist Realism deified Lenin and Marx, attributed the Bolshevik ranks with heroism undaunted by overwhelming opposition, and directed the proletariat towards a better future through reconstruction and industrialization of the state. Socialist Realism was essentially a Party tool that, combined[…]

The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. Benny Louie Humanity 450 Dr. Maureen Schmid 17 May 1999 The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. In our modern society, the architectural design of skyscrapers is changing the downtown landscape of metropolitan areas. Due to the change of technologies, it has changed the architectural design of skyscraper dramatically in terms of the its function, design structures, heating and cooling systems and it social status in society. The basic function of the architecture is to provide a roof over peoples’ head. The main purpose of architecture is to act[…]

From 1430 to 1623A.D., four sculptures of the Biblical David were created. From the master artists Bernini, Donatello, Michelangelo, and Verrocchio came the most famous David’s of the world. Even though infinitely many were made, these surpass the others to become marvels that will live forever. The earliest of the David’s, is the work of Donatello(c.1430). This magnificent work is a life-size, nude, bronze, figure of David. The sculpture is portraying the scene after David has cut off the head of Goliath. His foot is raised on the severed head in a stance of contropposto. His sword is in the right hand with the stone in the left. This very smooth and natural looking sculpture was originally part of Medici[…]

During the Romantic Period there seemed to be revolution in the air. The American Revolution and the French Revolution of 1789 had a great impact on literature of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This impact can be seen throughout Romantic literature but especially in the area of new subjects. Before the 19th century authors tended to write about the aristocratic class. There was nothing written for or about the common people. There are three areas in which the discussion will focus upon in the area of new subjects. The first area will focus on the children, the second will be women, and the third will be the new attitude towards God. The Romantic period strongly emphasized the lives[…]

Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of “nothing.” The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people’s universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in the late 19th century and early 20th century with the growing dominance of Realism in the literature and the rapid advancement of science and technology. However, Romanticism was very impressionative on most individuals during its time. Rationalism or Realism was erected during the mid 19th[…]